Aggression Replacement Training (ART)

Placement on the Continuum of Evidence Unclear + Download icon Download PDF
Target Population: 
Adolescents, Children
Community-Based, School-based
Anger, Antisocial Behavior, Behavioral Problems, Social Competency
Target Audience 

This program is for children and adolescents who display aggressive behaviors.


Aggression Replacement Training (ART) is designed to alter the behavior of aggressive youth by teaching positive interpersonal skills; anger control techniques; and pro-social values, such as respect for others.


A public search identified a number of peer-reviewed evaluations of ART.  Collectively, reports indicate that ART is associated with reductions in anti-social (e.g., number of rearrests) and increased prosocial (e.g., self-control) behaviors.  Despite these positive results, all studies present limitations, such as a lack of or insufficient follow-up analyses to determine if results are maintained longer term or the absence of a control/comparison group to conclude whether results are due to the intervention or other factors.  


ART is intended to improve youth behavior through three program components:

  • Structured Learning Training, also called SkillStreaming:  Participants are taught pro-social behaviors through the use of modeling, role-playing, performance feedback, and repetitive learning.
  • Anger Control Training:  Youth are encouraged to bring an anger-provoking situation from their previous week to each group session, and, in this session, they learn techniques to control anger impulses.
  • Moral Reasoning Training:  Participants develop a better understanding of concepts, like fairness and justice, by learning to take another person’s perspective in a given situation.
Previous Use 

ART was first used in 1978 and has been implemented in schools, correctional facilities, and mental health institutions.  ART is available in numerous languages and has been evaluated in Australia, Norway, Russia, and the United States.


Training is required to implement ART.  Please see for information.


Considerations for implementing ART include selecting facilitators who are skilled in working with youth with aggressive behaviors, allocating time for program training, and obtaining commitment from administrators and staff.

The Clearinghouse can help address these considerations. Please call 1-877-382-9185 or email


If you are interested in implementing ART, the Clearinghouse is interested in helping you!
Please call 1-877-382-9185 or email


ART lasts 10 weeks for a total of 30 hours.  Each of the three components requires a 1-hour session per week.


The ART facilitator manual costs $44.95 and is available at Evidence-based prevention programs are cost-effective as determined by the Washington State Institute for Public Policy (2014) and for every dollar spent on the implementation of ART, the return on investment is estimated to be $18.69.

Evaluation Plan 

To move the ART program to the Promising category on the Clearinghouse Continuum of Evidence, at least one quasi-experimental or randomized evaluation should be performed demonstrating positive effects lasting at least six months from program completion.

The Clearinghouse can help you to develop an evaluation plan to ensure the program components are meeting your goals. Please call 1-877-382-9185 or email


Contact the Clearinghouse with any questions regarding this program.
Phone: 1-877-382-9185 Email:

You may also contact Mark Amendola by phone 1-814-881-2438, email, or visit

References - Used For Placement 

Currie, M. R., Wood, C. E., Williams, B., & Bates, G. W. (2012). Aggression Replacement Training (ART) in Australia:  A longitudinal youth justice evaluation. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 19(4), 577-604. 

Currie, M. R., Wood, C. E., Williams, B., & Bates, G. W. (2009). Aggression replacement training in Australia:  Youth justice pilot study. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law, 16(3), 413-426. 

Glick, B. & Goldstein, A. P. (1987).  Aggression replacement training. Journal of Counseling and Development, 65, 356-362.

Koposov, R., Gundersen, K. K., & Svartdal, F. (2014). Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among children from north-west Russia. The International Journal of Emotional Education, 6(1), 14-24.

*Resources and associated costs reflect those identified at the time of fact sheet publication.